When Lovecraft set about developing his concepts for the Plateau of Leng and the Mountains of Madness, he was inspired by a show of the art of N. K. Roerich (1874-1947), a Russian artist whose visions of Tibetan buildings clutching the Himalayas gave Lovecraft some ideas.
“Possibly I have mentioned to you at various times my admiration for the work of Nicholas Roerich — the mystical Russian artist who has devoted his life to the study & portrayal of the unknown uplands of Central Asia, with their vague suggestions of cosmic wonder & terror … surely Roerich is one of those rare fantastic souls who have glimpsed the grotesque, terrible secrets outside space & beyond time, & who have retained some ability to hint at the marvels they have seen.” — Letter from H. P. Lovecraft to Lillian D. Clark, May 21/22, 1930.
Here is one of Roerich's works, which is very evocative of the Old Ones' city in Antarctica:
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