Graham Hancock has made this show before. Netflix’s Ancient Apocalypse is in substance and style very much like the Channel 4 / TLC series Quest for the Lost Civilization that Hancock made nearly twenty-five years ago, albeit with different archaeological sites. In the intervening decades, all that has really changed is the use of drones for better aerial footage, a lot more dramatic music to paper over gaps in logic, and a growing bitterness behind Hancock’s carefully rehearsed enunciation. Each episode, for example, starts with an angry rant about Hancock’s greatness and his critics’ meanness. He opens time and again with some variation on “many archaeologists hate me” and poses as a truth-teller who will singlehandedly overturn archaeology.
Ancient Apocalypse is, loosely, an eight-part, four-hour adaptation of Hancock’s Magicians of the Gods, with a bit of his America Before, both of which I have reviewed at length and to which reviews I direct readers for more substantive criticism. [Note: Click the links to the reviews before criticizing me for not providing a point-by-point rebuttal; I already did that.] In this review, I will try to highlight what is new or different rather than what repeats the books, sometimes nearly line-for-line.
Hancock has not lost his ability to communicate clearly and engagingly. His series is slick, and his presentation could give the History Channel’s shaggy pseudo-documentaries pointers on being compelling. But beneath the surface level, the show feels very much like a score-settling vanity project. Hancock’s son, Sean Hancock, is an executive overseeing unscripted programming at Netflix, and perhaps this explains why the streamer allowed Hancock to show old clips of his “enemies,” edited to make them look like arrogant buffoons, while only Hancock’s point of view is presented as valid. It’s one-sided to the point of undermining its own credibility. [CORRECTION: Sean Hancock was not involved in decision-making regarding Ancient Apocalypse, and I apologize for repeating a false insinuation that first appeared in the Guardian.]
Each of the eight episodes centers on a different ancient site, followed by Hancock’s theorizing, a discussion of myths and legends of some Flood hero or another, and then supposed connections to other sites across time and space. There is a lot of overly dramatic music and golden hour aerial drone shots, a blatant appeal to pathos to lend portentous grandeur to the proceedings.
Part I: Once There Was a Flood
Gunung Padang, Indonesia
Immediately in the first episode, we see that Ancient Apocalypse is handsomely shot and filled with well-done CG, but, like every show of its kind, it assumes the viewer already knows the story and read Hancock’s books. I am not sure that people unfamiliar with his claims will be sucked in by the staccato, superficial storytelling and the lack of a buildup to what are supposed to be grand revelations.
The first episode focuses on Gunung Padang, the focus of part of Magicians of the Gods, the book this series loosely adapts. As in the book, Hancock celebrates the idiosyncratic ideas of Danny Hilman Natawidjaja, who became a laughingstock after trying to prove a natural hill was an artificial pyramid. Hancock believes all other scientists are conspiring against Natawidjaja’s revelations. He claims there are three underground chambers within the hill, though is unclear that the voids are artificial. Hancock claims archaeologists are refusing to investigate, and he accepts the unconfirmed claim that the site dates back to 9600 BCE. He similarly claims Gunung Padang’s architects sailed to Micronesia to build its stone structures, traditionally dated to recent centuries.
The episode sets the template for the series—angry, one-sided, impressionistic rather than factual, more intent on using rhetoric and implication than evidence, and overly enamored of Victorian notions of a lost imperial race, mostly because Hancock is tilting against Victorian ideas of “progress,” “civilization,” and academia that haven’t been current in more than a century. In this episode, Hancock implies heavy things can’t be carried by lazy, primitive Natives, which is why a superior imperial force must have civilized them with technical knowledge in the Ice Age, just as Ignatius Donnelly might have said, and did say in Atlantis: The Antediluvian World. In this show, Hancock does not use the word Atlantis to name his lost civilization, but since he did in America Before, I will employ it in this review for brevity, rather than the longer lost sea-faring, technologically advanced civilization of the Ice Age.
Hancock repeats his prior claim that the end of the Ice Age was the Great Flood of mythology, and with little discussion of the spread of mythology or the dependence of stories on one another (particularly remodeling due to contact with Abrahamic faiths), he repeats Ignatius Donnelly’s ideas about global flood myths representing a real catastrophe. Instead, he presents the only options as a real event or “coincidence.” False dichotomies quickly become the show’s stock in trade.
Part II: Stranger in a Time of Chaos
Hancock asserts that an ancient lost civilization built the great pyramid of Cholula, a claim Ignatius Donnelly once made. We hear that it is a “black hole” in Mesoamerican history, with an unknown origin. Archaeology tells us it began as a platform for a temple to Quetzalcoatl in the third century BCE. Instead, it quickly becomes evident that Hancock is reverting to Donnelly’s idea of a global pyramid-building Atlantean culture as he begins comparing the wildly different pyramids of cultures separated across time and space and asserting they were all developed from sacred mounds and platforms erected by the culture he won’t call Atlantis. This allows him to gloss over the differences in architecture and time to emphasize sanctity and “the ideas that underpin them.” He nevertheless pretends to be shocked that pyramids worldwide are tall and tapered—the only shape for high structures before steel-frame construction—and contain chambers, a feature so obvious its existence should be a given. Hancock relates a supposed Native story about the pyramid being the work of giants who survived the Flood and criticizes archaeologists for dismissing it as myth, without telling the audience that at least since the nineteenth century scholars have recognized it as a localization of Bible stories (the Flood and the Tower of Babel) by Christianized locals and recorded by Catholic priests. Hancock accepts the story and declares the Nephilim-Giants to be the “intellectual giants” of Atlantis.
Hancock then interviews Marco Vigato, author of Empires of Atlantis, a book about the white heroes of Atlantis’s Aryan empire with their superior white genes (75% Atlantean and 25% pre-human, he claims), and tries to redate various Aztec ruins to Atlantean times based on weathering. Most of the episode, though, merely summarizes Hancock’s familiar argument that (white) culture heroes from myth are survivors of Atlantis.
Part III: Sirius Rising
Hancock argues against Victorian ideas of linear progress, an idea scholarship has not endorsed in a century, in order to claim an advanced civilization could disappear. He spends quite a bit of time trying to argue that Malta’s great ruins are undatable and that Malta’s established history is an academic conspiracy to hide Atlantis. He claims there is no evidence of a learning curve and Malta was too small to justify big buildings. “Think about it: Could those farmers, who archaeologists tell us never built anything bigger than a shack, really have achieved all this?” Relying on a legend that a Giant built the temples, and he again rewrites the Giant to be someone of intellectual genius—something that has no real basis in logic except in the Nephilim stories of Enochian literature, where the Giants inherit the forbidden knowledge of the Watchers.
In 1917, some teeth found in the Maltese cave of Għar Dalam were identified as Neanderthal, and in 2016, a pediatrician wrote a book to suggest the initial identification was correct. Hancock uses this to argue, nonsensically, that archaeologists are obsessed with a false paradigm and therefore Homo sapiens came to Malta with the Neanderthals in the Ice Age, five thousand years earlier than thought, and built massive temples, which they aligned to Sirius in 11,000 BCE. There is no evidence Sirius was the target of any temple; the researcher who hypothesized it did so by making assumptions about the purpose and unity of Maltese temples for which there is no proof.
Hancock spends much of this episode arguing that native Maltese were too stupid, lazy, or ignorant to do think, build, and do, so only geniuses from another culture could pile rocks or watch stars. But Hancock is the ignorant one, falsely claiming that Malta is “linked” directly to Egypt because they paint the “Eye of Horus” on their boats. The eyes are not of Horus but at just eyes, continuing a tradition imported from either Phoenician or Greek times, when those cultures used eyes on their boats.
Part IV: Ghosts of a Drowned World
Bimini Road, the Bahamas
The Bimini Road, seriously. Hancock refuses to believe it is natural and says it is “reckless” not to try to prove it is an Atlantean wall, so he brings a marine biologist (!) with him to “prove” it is a “manmade structure.” This leads to a discussion of old maps allegedly showing Antarctica (they were the hypothetical southern continents from Greco-Roman myth) in which Hancock repeats old lies about the mapmakers admitting to relying on Ice Age originals. They said no such thing. The most famous such map literally says the opposite: “Behold!” Oronteus Finaeus wrote in 1531: “he presents for your gaze provinces, islands, seas, rivers, and mountains unseen before now, known neither to Ptolemy, nor Eudoxus, nor Eratosthenes, or Macrobius, but which have lain in shadows up to the present day.” Hancock did not read the Latin text and literally says in his show that it is based on older sources. He did not read the map he cites as evidence. Similarly, he repeats old clams about the Piri Reis map and adds a ridiculous one: that a clear set of mountains drawn on a rotated depiction of Cuba (much of the map is twisted to fit the vellum) is in fact the Bimini Road on a lost Ice Age island. We end with a recitation of Plato’s Atlantis allegory, which Hancock takes for history.
Part V: Legacy of the Sages
Hancock, still mired in his long-ago schoolboy lessons, seems think 1994, when Göbekli Tepe was discovered, is “recent” (and not nearly 30 years ago!) and therefore, like all aging schoolboys who rail against their hated lessons, crows that Göbekli Tepe challenges what “we’ve been taught”—as though knowledge wouldn’t or shouldn’t change over decades. Again, Hancock complains about “hunter-gatherers” being unable to carve or to build, as though one’s means of subsistence defined one’s intellect. Indeed, he even criticizes the “ambition” of “your average hunter-gatherer.” Yes, he called them lazy. He also alleges that stone carving emerged perfected, as though a gift from Atlantis, because there is no evidence of improvement, even while admitting that most of the similar sites beyond Göbekli Tepe are unexcavated. He also assumes that any potential connection to Sirius must be proof of a shared Atlantean heritage, though Sirius is the brightest and therefore most obvious target for naked-eye early astronomers.
Weirdly enough, while real scientists are happily studying how monumental architecture and settlement might lead to agriculture, Hancock rejects this revolution in our understanding of the origins of agriculture, instead insisting on the old twentieth century notion of agriculture yielding towns and monuments in order to defend his idea that only the Watchers and Nephilim—sorry, Atlantean sages—no, wait, sages with cute purses. For him, Göbekli Tepe is a “reboot” of Atlantis after the Flood.
The episode finishes with Martin Sweatman’s nonsensical interpretation of Göbekli Tepe’s iconography, itself based on Hancock’s own prior speculation. I have critiqued his bad ideas many times and need not repeat his Graham Hancock fan fiction here. Hancock calls Göbekli Tepe a “memorial” to the dead of Atlantis.
Part VI: America’s Lost Civilization
Poverty Point and Serpent Mound
Having mostly exhausted Magicians of the Gods, Hancock moves on to adapting his next book, America Before. It’s interesting that he again frames his argument around schoolboy lectures, complaining about the Clovis-first idea of the peopling of the Americas. He wrongly says this was the “dominant paradigm” until 2010 (he’s a decade late) and seems angry to have discovered that schools don’t teach it anymore because it gives him fewer reasons to argue archaeologists are resistant to evidence.
The episode looks at Poverty Point, Serpent Mound, and other mound sites, noting their astronomical alignments, which he attributes to Atlantis. He knows this sounds racist, so he offers a lengthy discussion on Native heritage and the atrocities committed against Native peoples and their cultures. “I’m not saying the ancient Americans living here weren’t capable of discovering and incorporating these astronomical observations into their sites by themselves,” he says, undermining his own argument for a lost civilization in the hope of not appearing racist.
Hancock makes much hay out of the administrators of Serpent Mound banning him from filming at the site, which Hancock calls “censorship.” Having been burned with shows like America Unearthed, they decided not to support fringe ideas about non-Native civilizations being responsible for Native sites. Hancock calls this “ideological” discrimination and he gets very mad about it.
Part VII: A Fatal Winter
Archaeology says the massive underground cave city of Derinkuyu (and around three dozen others) in Cappadocia was built below ground with hand axes in the first millennium BCE, the date of the oldest artifacts found there. Xenophon discusses it in his Anabasis. Hancock, though, disagrees. In Magicians of the Gods he placed it in the Paleolithic, claiming with no particular evidence that the underground cities were bunkers to protect against a comet crash. He alleges that because hand axes were known to have been used at the end of the Ice Age in the region, “there is no reason” Derinkuyu couldn’t have been carved then. Vitruvius probably reported truly in On Architecture 2.1.5 when he said the Phrygian built underground because they inhabit a “country destitute of timber,” so they “choose natural hillocks, which they pierce and hollow out for their accommodation, as well as the nature of the soil will permit.” Hancock, though, tries to link Derinkuyu to a late Persian variant of the Near East Flood myth in the Zoroastrian Avesta (Fargard 2.21-43) in which Ahura Mazda orders Yima to hide animals and seeds in a stone enclosure against a fatal winter. Hancock says it describes an underground city like Derinkuyu, though in the text it is clearly a building with walls and a roof. Hancock says that the winter would be heralded by a celestial snake—a comet—but that detail he finds key doesn’t appear in the Avesta. Hancock has conflated the text with the Bundahishn, which speaks of the evil spirit and his demons moving “like a snake” as they rose up to heaven and returned (ch. 3). It’s not the same story, as Hancock knew when he discussed both in Magicians of the Gods, but here he purposely runs them falsely together to create a “stunning implication” that simply isn’t there.
Part VIII: Cataclysm and Rebirth
Scablands, Washington State
The final episode rehearses uncredentialed autodidact Randall Carlson’s claims about the catastrophic formation of Washington State’s scablands previously given in Magicians of the Gods. Nothing new occurs here, but the usual evidence for the alleged Younger Dryas comet, previously featured on Ancient Aliens after appearing in Magicians of the Gods follows. As I noted many times, even if the comet really did hit, there is nothing to connect it to the destruction of a lost civilization—except that Ignatius Donnelly wrote a book about it as his sequel to Atlantis: The Antediluvian World. Hancock does his best to argue that the constellations were known 10,000 years before evidence for their imagined shapes exist and that astrological codes can pinpoint when the next comet will hit. After all, Joe Rogan pops by to endorse the idea, so it must be as true as his vaccine denialism. The dramatic music swells, the rhetoric reaches a fever-pitch, and yet nothing more than a few stories and some rhetorical sleight of hand holds together Hancock’s efforts to play prophet and warn that our own new Atlantis is destined to fall if we don’t bow before nature and repent the hubris of our civilization.
Nicholas John Collyer
11/11/2022 07:13:09 pm
What a grifter that guy is! You’re right about the bitterness: every interview I’ve seen with him begins with a nasty rant about archaeologists and academia in general. Wouldn’t it be great if Netflix did a “right of reply “series?
11/17/2022 01:47:58 pm
It has nice photography and music . It is quite fun spotting all the points where he tries to slip some false logic past the audience but the suggestion that nearly all archaeologist and historian are against disruptive theories because they are too invested in the status quo ( as if they are part of big pharma, or defence research or big oil where such arguments might have some traction) is of course ridiculous and soon becomes irritating.
11/21/2022 09:10:50 pm
"...but the suggestion that nearly all archaeologist and historian are against disruptive theories because they are too invested in the status quo...is of course ridiculous...."
11/11/2022 08:40:27 pm
I’ve never read any of Hancock’s books, and I’m intrigued enough by your review to watch at least a few minutes of Ancient Apocalypse. Perhaps I’ll stream it in the loo…..
11/14/2022 07:33:15 pm
I would bet big money that Jason never thought that his review of Hancock’s latest drivel would have solicited far more comments than most/all of his previous reviews. It has triggered both the wackos and the critical thinkers…kudos to Jason for formenting such a discussion. This is almost always a good thing, diverse viewpoints are usually interesting to read. Obviously I am not a Hancock fan, but exposing the depth of the belief in his type of pseudoscience is enlightening. Depressing, but enlightening.
11/15/2022 02:16:48 pm
Jason also someone fantasizing about him sweating as he types. That has to be more unsettling than a pointed out reflection in eyewear.
12/11/2022 10:40:57 pm
Not as unsettling as the fantasy you just related.
11/11/2022 09:19:34 pm
He didn't come off angry. You sure it's him? It seems the better his evidence, the more you reach and more angry you become. Do you actually read your infantile reviews?
11/12/2022 11:55:15 am
"The better his evidence..." Stringing together more and more untruths doesn't count as better evidence, any more than shouting more loudly makes an argument stronger.
11/12/2022 11:59:03 am
"... destined to fall if we don’t bow before nature and repent the hubris of our civilization."
11/15/2022 07:53:26 pm
There literally is no evidence. I’m not saying yes or no, but there is a lot of guess work and most of all from what I see is he just doesn’t want to believe an earlier civilization was able to do what the Egyptian’s did. Probably with a lot of slaves and in the end that king died and said F that guy and didn’t even put him there because they didn’t find any bones. Not this guys idea that some super advance civilization lived. He’s all BS and no proof.
11/16/2022 08:33:30 am
You seriously believe a ton of unskilled slaves built the most advanced building of the time, which we would struggle to build today due to the weight, volume and size of the blocks and the miraculous precision it was all cut and positioned?
It's been well established that Egyptians built the pyramids seasonally with cyclical seasonal labor that was agricultural labor in growing season and became building labor when not. It appears to have been significant in their economy.
11/21/2022 12:22:03 pm
12/3/2022 05:12:50 pm
"most advanced building of the time"
12/11/2022 10:54:05 pm
"You seriously believe a ton of unskilled slaves built the most advanced building of the time, which we would struggle to build today due to the weight, volume and size of the blocks and the miraculous precision it was all cut and positioned?"
12/16/2022 03:29:22 am
Tom Brand: Your position appears to be "Since I don't know how to do it, those people from the ancient certainly couldn't know how to do it either." That's not a sustainable argument. Modern humans probably don't know how to do 90% of what ancient humans did, just as ancient humans wouldn't know how to do 90% of what we do today.
11/12/2022 12:04:40 pm
The "alleged" comet? Wow, you can't even bring yourself to give Hancock something that has copious scientific literature behind it. How many of those "vaccines" have you had? You know the ones the scientific literature say are dangerous for healthy people? It's clear science isn't your thing. Hey, Oak Island is back next week. Stick to that.
11/12/2022 07:10:58 pm
I mean, LOL. Graham Hancock has no credible peer-reviewed material behind his patently nonsensical claims. His science is rubbish, his understanding of cosmology and basic physics non-existent, and his understanding of the ancient world even less than that.
11/13/2022 10:51:10 pm
I've read a few of his books and there are loads of peer reviewed work he cites. What I actually find interesting about your comment is that, although I understand your breakdown of how conclusions can be erroneously drawn, you don't actually offer a counter to any of his assertions.
11/14/2022 10:55:27 am
Graham Hancock has never published peer reviewed research to support his assertions. Rather he cherry picks published works that give the appearance of supporting whatever stupidity he is promoting at a given time.
11/15/2022 10:56:22 am
If u believe anything Graham says you are
11/21/2022 08:54:50 am
You can probably believe what Hancock says if he tells you the time or the day of the week or who won WW2. But when it comes to telling you about Atlantis in Antarctica or 8500 year old pyramids in Mexico or the notion that a comet impact caused an almost overnight megafauna extinction event in North America or that academics are involved in a global conspiracy to suppress the truth? Then your intelligence and sanity are being put to the test.
12/18/2022 09:16:03 pm
If you believe his claims are false and spreading misinformation, share research that contradicts his points and disprove the theory. While you archeologists jumping to deny his work since it can not be proven with certainty, none of you present contradicting points to disprove this. This leads us (the audience) to believe Hancock is on par when he says you dismiss anything that doesn't fit the status quo.
Knee jerk obvious
12/24/2022 11:41:58 am
11/12/2022 01:34:22 pm
I ate some bad nasi padang yesterday so I had the opportunity to stream Episode One. Apparently the poster above didn’t watch the episode - or he has anger management issues himself. The coded phrases “so-called experts” and “extremely defensive arrogant and patronizing attitude of mainstream academia” etc. are not words of affection and joy. SMH.
11/12/2022 03:15:30 pm
I have a bachelors degree in archaeology so I’m not an expert. This series is difficult to watch. The ignorance and logical fallacies are too much for me. It is very misleading to the general population who do not have experience with archaeology or mythology.
11/12/2022 11:42:51 pm
Bachelors degree in archeology is like me saying my bachelors degree in finance is credible and anyone than doesn’t understand finance is dumb because they don’t have degree in that subject… Complete cash grave scam to believe the way you do. Theres others ways to knowledge. Literally can goto the library for free. Or go watch Good Will Hunting. Get an idea. I would wager you went in debt for your archeology degree. No not me. I learned how this world worked a long time ago with money. Without faith, money means jack shit. The narrative is scripted as fuck. Why don’t you open your mind to other ideas you twisted sheep buffoon. The world where I come from, money doesn’t exists. It’s futile. Everyone gets along because there’s no automotive honking up your ass. We get around by train and horse. So no cluster fucking in traffic. I would wager your the type of person that shits em self in road rage. The whole premise of this show is to challenge the mainstream archeology.
11/13/2022 03:37:53 pm
Their first sentence explicitly stated “I’m not an expert”. Yet you appear to be triggered by the expertise that you yourself have decided they have claimed for themselves, and respond with a bizarre free-form monologue. Most entertaining, but rather strange.
An Over-Educated Grunt
11/13/2022 04:16:43 pm
I have a master's degree and a license to practice in geotechnical engineering. This DOES make me an expert in that field, and it gives me great pleasure to use my expertise in structures and foundations to tell you that your ideas are structurally unsound and built on a foundation of nonsense.
11/14/2022 03:04:02 am
"The whole premise of this show is to challenge the mainstream archeology."
11/13/2022 11:00:09 pm
I'm curious what is so misleading to the general population. I have now read a fair few of these reviews and comments that claim Hancock is selling snake oil and presenting false information, yet there is not one thing being called out as wrong. There is a lot that has been taught in schools from history books with all kinds of categorically false information, and sometimes propaganda.
11/16/2022 09:35:02 pm
You didn't bother reading the article you're commenting on? Or the two links that debunk Hancock's books?
11/17/2022 08:28:22 am
It is highly unlikely that he read the entire review, Tim. You can often tell by the comments that the Hancock fans didn't make it past the title or first paragraph. They just know that it is criticism and offer much the same canned responses that they did the last time something critical of Grammy was posted.
2/1/2023 11:59:23 am
Hancock claims there was an advanced (whatever that means) civilization before the last ice age. There is literally zero evidence for this claim, and no reason at all to believe there was such a civilization, i.e. no artefacts that could not have been made (albeit sometimes very laboriously) using prehistoric technology. If you watch Ancient Apocalypse carefully, you will quickly realize that the evidence Hancock presents doesn't really support any of his claims.
2/8/2023 03:53:48 pm
3/3/2023 06:28:43 am
Forest fires would not account for the glass microbeads numb nuts.
11/12/2022 03:40:39 pm
Each episode doesn't begin with an "angry rant". Did you actually watch the episodes? You're starting to sound like Scott Wolter.
11/17/2022 02:00:17 pm
The first two do: he say nearly all archaeologist are too invested in the status quo to listen to his theories.
11/12/2022 05:19:29 pm
This series was virtually unwatchable for me. It appears to be nothing more than a self-promotional vanity project by Hancock filled with scientific misinformation and continuous pot shots against "mainstream science" (aka "science").
2/1/2023 07:40:23 pm
The giveaway is West attaching "unfortunately" to the statement "Scientists are taught to be cynical about things." If West's preferred version of that statement is "Scientists, fortunately, are taught to be gullible about things," he shouldn't be allowed anywhere near a keyboard or microphone.
11/12/2022 05:33:50 pm
I honest to God just love the way you write. Also thank you for putting together all the little connections throughout the show. It's always fascinating for me to see how all this crap comes together.
11/12/2022 08:41:35 pm
Jason has jumped the shark. Name-calling, labels, and implying racism is the best he has anymore. He has become a parody. We'd all like to see you debate Carlson. Maybe you can call him some names.
11/13/2022 07:42:20 pm
Carlson doesn't debate, he rants, and calling him names is completely warranted.
11/12/2022 08:47:43 pm
I can just see Colavito typing this angry, sweat pouring down his face, upset Netflix gave Hancock a show and not him. At least there are no aliens.
11/12/2022 09:58:48 pm
I just finished the entire thing, and boy do I feel like I need a mental enema after that utter drivel. Its 50 percent whining about how scared mainstream academics are against having their paradigm destroyed (the dumbest thing I have ever heard, and something people claim in many fringe fields like Ufology). No academic or scientist is scared of actual EVIDENCE that would change the way we understand things. NONE. They welcome it, but he spends half the show whining about that to get people to distrust what scientist actually say about this stuff. I found the last episode particularly bad, as someone who takes several geology field trips to the Scablands every single year and has an entire library on the Missoula Floods, Columbia River Basalt Floods, The Scablands, etc.. His misunderstanding and misrepresenting of the geology of Eastern Washington is just laughable, if it wasn't sad.
11/13/2022 10:36:48 am
"No academic or scientist is scared of actual EVIDENCE that would change the way we understand things. NONE."
11/25/2022 11:10:11 am
Will Rogers described "An economist is a man that can tell you...what can happen under any given condition, and his guess is liable to be as good as anybody else's too."
11/14/2022 10:56:27 am
"No academic or scientist is scared of actual EVIDENCE that would change the way we understand things. NONE. They welcome it,"
11/21/2022 09:18:58 pm
11/15/2022 03:10:32 pm
Academics and archeologists have to make a choice. Study and explore what the people with the money want to believe or make the masses believe or be pushed to the bottom of the hill. At the bottom there is no funding and there are a million detractors telling you to stay at the bottom while we get paid and get to work. There is plenty of plausible ideas and leading information into what Hancock is trying to get across but nobody will fund that research especially those who already are running the narrative. So there is plenty of actual scientists and archeologist and experts ready to back him up but only in secret for fear of losing funding or work and thats how the real world operates in many different fields until its deemed proper to move that direction or they cannot fight the truth anymore. One day i believe a lot of people in this comment section are going to be eating crow.
A shot in the dark
11/17/2022 07:20:36 am
A wild guess. You are neither an academic nor an archaeologist? Another wild guess, you don't know personally a lot of academics or archaeologists that have confided their experiences with you? Am I hot or cold?
11/17/2022 02:07:26 pm
"So there is plenty of actual scientists and archeologist and experts ready to back him up but only in secret for fear of losing funding or work . . ."
11/17/2022 06:06:28 pm
Must be true, Scott Wolter says pretty much the exact same thing.
11/21/2022 09:23:38 pm
The American people refuses to adequately fund archaeology, academia and science in general. Instead we fund the military to the tune of $800 billion. Do we invest that much in education? Do we invest that much money in public ownership of science? Do we invest that amount of money in our own health?
11/27/2022 02:52:46 am
I’m sorry I just can’t…
11/13/2022 07:25:48 am
SO SAD... Same Old Song And Dance. Virtually nothing new has come from this man since I first heard of him around age 5. "The human race has amnesia" was his main catch phrase as I recall.
12/24/2022 07:08:12 pm
11/13/2022 08:57:05 am
Graham Hancock has updated and retooled the old Erich Von Daniken trope – that the numerous vast and enigmatic archeological sites found across the globe cannot be explained by conventional science. And that there's a conspiracy among the archeological establishment to prevent the unsettling truth from being revealed (all very De Vinci Code). Von Daniken argued that visiting aliens had somehow jumpstarted the technological skills of early humans to create these wonders. He also claimed that ancient hieroglyphs and myths regularly depicted these ancient space travellers. Hancock has switched the aliens for some advanced ice-age civilisation – and like Von Daniken is making a truckload of money for peddling this tosh
11/13/2022 11:01:28 am
Enough production money and the decision to freely use bombast and unfounded speculation can make for a slick product aimed at the credulous.
11/13/2022 12:55:52 pm
I’ve looked nearly everywhere for the answer so I’ll ask here- if you know of any archeologists that have thoroughly investigated the sites in question like Gunung Padang? Everything I’ve read says the Archeologists refuse to analyze and excavate themselves. If so, why is that? How can a profession refute something if they don’t do everything they can to analyze the facts of the site?
An Over-Educated Grunt
11/13/2022 04:19:20 pm
Same reason I wouldn't drill water wells on a volcano. You don't spend your hard fought grant money on a site unlikely to produce useful results.
11/13/2022 07:49:47 pm
Archeologists, like my sister, spend money on far less important matters than something that could change history. At the very least we learn something fundamental about a culture.
11/14/2022 12:28:04 pm
“Archeologists, like my sister, spend money on far less important matters than something that could change history.”
11/14/2022 10:22:32 am
The site has been investigated by multiple scholars in multiple fields going back a century. The vast majority of them dispute the claims made by the researchers that Hancock has borrowed from regarding dating of the site. Rebecca Bradley has discussed the matter at length on her blog.
11/14/2022 10:42:06 am
“Scholars in multiple fields”, “blog” and “a century” does not provide me or anyone data or knowledge. So, if these things happened, great, who are they, when did it happen, where are the reputable publications of their findings, and why is it so hard to find?
11/14/2022 12:48:17 pm
If you can't follow the suggestion to read the information that Bradley has provided in summarizing the controversy then you probably don't belong in this conversation. This is the classic example of someone asking for information then continuing to argue without bothering to review the information provided to them.
11/14/2022 01:47:08 pm
EH- his suggestion was “read a blog by Rebecca”. Why are you responding? I asked a question, if you don’t have an answer you can save the mansplaining.
11/15/2022 07:46:26 am
What part of published research don’t you understand? I’m floored you keep telling me to read a blog. Whether by an archeologist or not, it’s A BLOG. What if I read a blog by an archeologist that agrees with Hancock, would that be suitable? Absolutely not.
11/15/2022 10:31:19 am
She will go on and on arguing and playing the mansplaining card instead of taking 10 minutes to review the information provided. No wonder Hancock has made a fortune off of these dullards.
An Over-Educated Grunt
11/20/2022 03:38:09 pm
Let me get this straight. You complain about being directed to a blog... after coming to a blog... and you expect us to do a full fledged literature review for you outside billable hours? I recommend you talk to your sister the archaeologist about how this works.
11/14/2022 03:00:59 pm
Graham Hancock is a former journalist with a Sociology degree. Rebecca Bradley is a novelist with a PhD in Archaeology.
11/14/2022 11:16:59 pm
Thank you for finding this resource. Much appreciated.
11/15/2022 10:39:06 am
It took me 30 seconds to locate Bradley's blog writings on the topic via a Google search. Too much of a challenge for some.
11/15/2022 11:59:43 pm
Bradley's point by point rundown is exactly what I've been looking for since watching the first episode of the show, thank you for posting!
11/13/2022 04:25:09 pm
Nothing more mysterious than nationalist pride & tourist dollars. Same plot as Bosnian pyramids from before time itself. All promoted by a single individual with an agenda. It's not old and is just typical terracing around a volcanic cone.
11/14/2022 11:02:54 am
Thank God Charles is here to tell us for sure what happened in our past.
You can join that group of synics dear reviewer, that are stuck in the current narcissistic way of thinking. Catch a wake up to the fact that its thinkers like Graham that are going to catapult the rest of us into a new world where we stop being so gullable and start questioning our past and future existence. Thank God for this platforn where our intelligences can be challenged and we can encourage society to take heed of the messages our ancestors so painstakingly etched for us in these beautiful wonders.
11/13/2022 07:45:57 pm
If you're paying serious attention to anything Hancock says, you're so deep into gullibility that you'll never get out - and listening to more from him just proves it.
11/14/2022 11:05:08 am
So you say nothing Graham says is accurate - nothing of his should be watched, looked into, researched for oneself. That makes a lot of sense.
An Over-Educated Grunt
11/20/2022 03:40:41 pm
No, just that every claim he makes that can be fact checked proves to be badly misrepresented. If Hancock told me the sky was blue, first thing I'd do is stick my head out the window and check.
11/14/2022 08:15:13 am
Hancock has been peddling his shit for over 30 years, Von Daniken for more than 50 years - neither has yet to produce one actual bit of evidence to support their claims, go sit on a crystal ball & hatch it.
11/14/2022 11:07:31 am
"yet to produce one actual bit of evidence"
11/13/2022 08:49:20 pm
I had hoped for a an unbiased review. I did not get one.
11/15/2022 09:28:05 am
It is accurate however
Oddly I learned of Hancock from probably his least well-known book, "Lords of Poverty," which has nothing whatever to do with archeology mainstream, crackpot or otherwise, but a valuable insider's critique of the Bretton Woods institutions in which he worked. Only years after coming across that (in an English language bookstore in Nepal of all places) as the internet made author searches possible did I realize he had a whole other, larger & far better known publishing life.
Comment was cut owing to length, its remainder
Dr David Murray
11/24/2022 08:27:10 pm
So, back to the nub of your genralisation: what you are saying means your friends and family -- (so many academics!) 'are in fact a bunch of haughty, cliquish, resistant to new information to an uncomfortable degree no one likes to admit' -- or are they ALL convenient exceptions to your 'rule'. Because waht you are saying is most academics are dodgy, except ALL my friends/family who are academics. Really need to check the logic of your argument before posting Chris.- Academics, like any human occupation, if full of bitching and jealousy, doesn't mean academia is the closed shop you claim it is. I could compare your voluminous anecdotal evidence with stories and direct experiences that run absolutely counter.
Dr David Murray
11/20/2022 05:29:02 am
"That said, it remains true that a lot of academia is in fact haughty, cliquish, resistant to new information to an uncomfortable degree no one likes to admit, with egos and grant money etc tied up in plowing a well-worn row." ... so not making any crude generalisations then ... and you obviously have a lot of evidence to back-up your confident assertion I'm assume?
This is not the best way to establish what thick skins academics have if this is your intent.
Kind of how it is supposed to work
11/22/2022 09:39:55 am
Haughty, cliquish and resistant to new information= Confident in their subject matter based on a lot of soecialized training and research and skeptical of new ideas that are short on supporting data.
2/8/2023 08:28:20 am
"Confident in their subject matter based on a lot of soecialized training..."
kind of how it is supposed to work
2/14/2023 08:49:40 am
Since you have admitted to being in a social circle heavily weighted toward well-educated academics then statistically speaking at least some of them are grade-grubbers with no reason to have confidence in their trained expertise. How do you go about separating the wheat from the chaff at parties?
11/13/2022 10:38:54 pm
One could probably write a book on how badly GH and his ilk misrepresent the Clovis First matter to create a strawman argument against the credibility of archaeology in general. That model was getting holes poked in it 35 years ago. It is drifting toward the point where it has been out of vogue for as long as it was the dominant model for looking at the peopling of the western hemisphere.
12/1/2022 06:44:29 pm
Quite. I was an undergraduate archaeology student in the early 90s and even then, though "Clovis first" was presented as the most generally accepted model, it was never as dogmatic as critics like Hancock like to pretend. In class we discussed at length the possibility that older sites or cultures exist in the Americas and even other possible scenarios for the migration of humans to the continent.
12/4/2022 11:21:52 pm
The same was true in the 80s. In the course of undergrad and grad classes in archaeology at three universities I never encountered Clovis first taught or discussed as dogma. I never taught it as dogma. I'm still waiting on Hancock or his sycophants to produce any evidence for their assertions that "many" or "hundreds" of careers in archaeology were ruined for daring to challenge Clovis first dogma. Hell, I'm still waiting for any of that bunch to demonstrate even a rudimentary understanding of the history of the rise and fall of the clovis first model. It is the Energizer bunny of fringe lunacy factoids.
John G Arch
11/14/2022 10:07:20 am
His interpretations of the past may well be off the wall, but these are largely matters of idle speculation rather than actual scientific proof. The places he talks of are places of eternal speculation. Sort of like the attempts to predict future climate and weather. We will never understand prehistorical stuff, and we will never predict the future.
11/14/2022 12:57:12 pm
It is not idle speculation for professionals to dismiss claims that natural geological formations were actually built by people from Atlantis or such like. Based on your logic it is idle speculation when a paleontologist tells you that a large bone came from a mammoth and not a 12 feet tall nephilim.
John G Arch
11/14/2022 05:42:53 pm
When I said "his speculations", I was referring to Graham Hancock's speculation. I was not referring to learned professionals who dismiss his speculations as being weird and unscientific
11/17/2022 10:16:34 am
Thank you for the much needed clarification on the point you were trying to make.
11/15/2022 10:40:00 am
Jason - You resorted to name calling like “Uncredentialed Autodidact” and even pushed racism multiple times.
11/15/2022 01:34:03 pm
Hancock is angry because he claims to just be asking questions but doesn't like the answers that he gets from those most qualified to answer them. His next step is to howl conspiracy.
11/15/2022 02:12:09 pm
"Hancock presents a compelling theory for an interesting and advanced civilization that existed before a catastrophe happened. It’s not a far fetched idea."
11/15/2022 06:44:14 pm
The mythology, Platos account of Atlantis, the Astroarcheological dating in various structures and Gobekli Tepe alone make for a compelling narrative.
11/15/2022 04:42:25 pm
"Hancock presents a compelling theory for an interesting and advanced civilization that existed before a catastrophe happened. It’s not a far fetched idea."
Dr David Murray
11/20/2022 05:38:29 am
"Hancock is a net positive in his ability to create interest in our ancient history and for his theories which challenge the mainstream." ... Sorry CRU, but they are not his theories as such ... "Hancock’s ideas recycle the long since discredited conclusions drawn by American congressman Ignatius Donnelly in his book Atlantis: The Antediluvian World, published in 1882." ... https://theconversation.com/with-netflixs-ancient-apocalypse-graham-hancock-has-declared-war-on-archaeologists-194881
11/15/2022 12:39:56 pm
I like Hancocks work but I do see him reaching to the same old conclusion a lot. I am also aware that as an uneducated person - but with a lot of interest in history - I am a somewhat easy target for fancifull tales. So in order to keep myself balanced I read critiques like these. Still, a few thing about the hypothesis I haven't seen dismissed very convincingly yet.
11/15/2022 09:46:21 pm
Humans certainly had *culture* prior to the Younger Dryas. Did they have "civilizations"? Depends on what you mean by "civilization". If you mean things like sedentary agriculture, pottery, metallurgy, temples and monuments, then while it's logically possible that there *could* have been civilizations before the Younger Dryas, there's just no actual evidence for it.
The Atlantis Expert
11/16/2022 02:22:08 am
The concept is that it was destroyed by a global flood.
11/16/2022 02:43:31 am
That last point is actually a good one, well in combination with the question of 'Where is their stuff'. I did a bit of reading after this as well and the last ice age was incredibly long, and even though it technically didn't prevent humans to develop sedentary culture before it, it is a whole lot less easy than in the favorable conditions we live in today. The argument someone like me would make in face of the 'where is their stuff argument' would go something like 'If we were hit by a global cataclysm that lasted almost a 1000 years, none of it would be left standing, especially all the stuff that would be under the sea.' But, since more simple remains did survive the Ice Age, that argument doesn't exactly hold. Unless the advanced Civ Hancock tells us about EXCLUSIVELY built their stuff on the shorelines of Antartica, but such a stark divide of cities by the sea and indigenous people inland seems unlikely. Also, I read in other places about the 'agricultural' revolution and apparently it was very much a slow and step by step process. That still doesn't answer all the 'mysteries' of ancient sites of course, but yeah, I guess we'll simply have to wait for more evidence.
11/16/2022 06:42:03 am
I think that Hancock would argue that a lot of the evidence pre YD era was destroyed by the event and that people should be investing more in LIDAR scanning.
11/16/2022 08:48:54 am
You both seem to miss the part in my reply where I state I WOULD make the same argument as you (and echoing Hancock himself in doing so), but that I find that it doesn't hold up if arrowtips and barbecue sites from before 25000 years ago can be found but entire civs leave no trace. For that to be true it would have to be almost exclusively coastal cities, which seems unlikely, given that this civ supposedly spawned new civs all around the globe, including mountaineous and inland regios. The fact that one category of evidence survives and the other one doesn't AND the fact that the last ice age lasted almost 100.000 years do make the mainstream hypothesis more likely for me, that conditions before this interglacial period that we experience right now were simply not right for humanity to spawn sedentary civilizations. I'm not really a skeptic, mind you, I have all Hancocks books in my house. But he does kind of avoid to describe what this ancient civilization REALLY looked like, instead of just driving the mystery. In that, the style of communication is similiar to ancient aliens and ghost stories.
11/16/2022 09:23:30 am
@The Atlantis Expert:
11/17/2022 06:36:21 pm
Hancocks ancient civilisation only built below today’s current water line.
11/18/2022 09:59:52 am
11/21/2022 12:33:12 pm
11/15/2022 10:57:33 pm
Reading the comments here, it appears there are two types of people in regard to Hancock - one type sees him as riding on the coattails of Zecharia Sitchin, Erich von Däniken, and Giorgio Tsoukalos, while the other type sees these people as unrecognized, unacknowledged, and unappreciated geniuses who would overturn the established science despite having few credentials in the disciplines at hand.
Waiting to eat crow
11/16/2022 12:04:25 am
Only one of the groups has the burden of proof and goes about trying to provide it in such bumbling manner that they are walking punch lines. They and their followers have been telling the rest of us for decades that validation will come any day now and we will have to eat crow. We will starve to death waiting for that day.
11/21/2022 09:22:26 pm
These are my two favorite comments! And they're spot on! I think people are forgetting two basic things 1 after a certain time period, especially if there is little remaining evidence, everything becomes speculation. 2 Unless someone can outright say I was there so I know it ALL becomes nothing more than speculation. Did I find the series interesting? Absolutely! Would i quote it as fact? Not at all. Can I speculate and come up with my own theories? Sure but it doesn't mean it's right. There's a reason we have so many myths and legends. 1 there wasn't a proper way to put what they were saying into words before the actual written word (not hyroglyphs? And 2 stories change all time. Details and facts are forgotten so people replace them. At this point everything regarding anything before the Ice Age is speculation and we will never actually know what happened
11/22/2022 10:10:13 am
The Atlantis Expert
11/16/2022 02:13:21 am
It's really two paradigms.
11/16/2022 09:41:45 am
@The Atlantis Expert:
11/16/2022 11:21:31 am
So you're saying it's a matter of faith, not evidence. What do you suppose this "advanced" ancient civilization would look like - hover cars, or Wright Flyers? Internal combustion engines, or bullocks pulling carts?
The Atlantis Expert
11/16/2022 02:41:15 pm
An industrialized civilization with steam engines that was at least as advanced as Victorian Britain in the mid 19th century, but not as advanced as we are now.
11/16/2022 10:03:45 pm
Belief is not evidence. You sound like a member of an uncompromising cult but I appreciate your evidence.
An Over-Educated Grunt
11/20/2022 03:56:47 pm
Sincerity is worth quite a bit less than evidence.
The Atlantis Expert
11/16/2022 02:27:29 am
One key point of disagreement between the mainstream paradigm and the alternative one is that the former believes that myths are either fictional or only partially inspired by actual events while the latter believe that myths are basically true - period, no ifs, and or buts and more besides that they are basically the only way of reconstructing out past and understanding our future.
An Over-Educated Grunt
11/20/2022 04:00:05 pm
If myths are fundamentally true, then by all means demonstrate their factuality. Offend Athena and be turned into a spider. Make wax wings and fly from Crete to Athens. Transform into an eagle and steal poetry from the giants. I really don't care which of these you do. PROVE THAT THEY ARE EVEN POSSIBLE, or accept that they are allegory.
1/18/2023 02:44:29 am
... and on cue, argument from contempt proves the point.
11/16/2022 06:36:00 am
I wholeheartedly disagree that nothing has changed in the intervening time since Fingerprints of the Gods was written and this documentary series.
11/17/2022 07:47:46 am
11/21/2022 09:25:40 pm
Not necessarily. I know people, who I refuse to associate with anymore, who refuse to do things or believe something if it wasn't their idea first. Its an ego thing and is very frustrating
11/16/2022 05:52:53 pm
And another actual archaeologist weighs in:
PROFESSOR CAROLINE MALONE
11/18/2022 04:38:40 am
As one the rubbished "Archaeologists" who has spent over 35 years, gleaning data about Malta's prehistoric past, and sharing that scientific knowledge, it is always irritating to see how this charlatan passes off your data as his, and then pours scorn on the proven interpretations. If only he would actually read our massive detailed publications that demonstrate not only the primary levels of Ggantija, but also Santa Verna and other sites, over 350 AMS Radio Carbon dates now properly reveal that mysterious timeline that Hancock fails to comprehend. Oh keep the amateurs out of the media.... and read instead our reports, located here: https://email@example.com/handle/1810/312497
11/24/2022 04:17:39 am
The link you've provided doesn't work. could you check and repost, please?
11/18/2022 09:40:04 am
every day i get more convinced that the philosophy of science should be taught to everyone in school. I'd argue that's even more important than science knowledge since knowing how (good) science works can help recognize good science knowledge to learn from
11/18/2022 11:02:37 pm
11/20/2022 05:27:41 am
Well im no gentleman so youll just have to deal with my punctuation
11/20/2022 03:45:44 pm
Well, no I don't and if you choose to portray yourself as a stupid idiot that is really not my problem. Portray away!
John G Arch
11/18/2022 10:51:17 am
I always knew not to trust reporters and journalists, because they all have an agenda and usually fail to report accurately. So when Hancock described himself as a journalist, I knew that I should disregard his commentary, and do my own research. Doing my own research is a quick google search, a quick look at the Wikipedia page, and further reading if I am interested in more info.
11/18/2022 05:17:27 pm
Hi GDave, Yes, that was my point. Sarcasm doesn’t come across well in written comments 😁 The ancient aliens must have known about future sea level rises over thousands of years, because they left nothing archaeologists have ever been able to access.
11/18/2022 06:11:16 pm
Ah, sorry. Poe's Law is in full effect here.
Declaration: Advertising info. Re Megalithic temples, actually calendars.
11/20/2022 04:03:10 pm
"See here how to use Mnajdra calendar to predict solstice day, in advance which is necessary for sowing cereal crop."
11/24/2022 01:30:22 pm
These types of comments should not be allowed.
11/20/2022 08:36:13 am
About Part VI: Do you have anything to add to the astronomical findings? Does the shape of the serpent only make sense for the stars like they were this long time ago or not?
11/20/2022 01:45:51 pm
Just ran across this article from the Times of Malta, disputing Hancock's claims about the megalithic structures on the archipelago:
11/21/2022 12:44:58 pm
I'm really surprised no one has brought up the Martian angle. The reason there's no evidence on Earth of the high civilization prior to the ice age...The advanced humans were actually refugees from Mars. Hancock wrote about this at least one time. Obviously not an original thought of Hancock as this has been portrayed in movies and sci-fi for a long time. Jason likely knows where it all originated.
11/24/2022 07:46:40 pm
"I thought it might be fun to take a look back at one of Graham Hancock's most embarrassing books, "The Mars Mystery" (1998), written with Robert Bauval and John Grigsby. The book was inspired by the 1996 claim of microbial life on Mars, which led Hancock to conspiracy theories."
New Theory: The Atlantis people were assholes
11/21/2022 06:25:19 pm
Guys, I just came up with another theory!
Further to the earlier post, and in connection with the megalithic temples cum calendars which were studied in mentioned book, the site in link below has additional evidence from various fields of research that corroborate what is stated in the book. All are fresh evidence that has become available in the past seven years since publication.
11/25/2022 12:48:26 pm
I'll bet Plato would have put a disclaimer in his writings about "Atlantis" being a fictional device if he knew people would spend the rest of eternity looking for it. They might as well be looing for Middle Earth or Westeros.
Plato did put a disclaimer in the Timaeus. It is a very important one, in that it reflects and throws a very important light on the history of the Earth in general and the fate of humanity in particular.
11/27/2022 06:00:07 pm
"Graham Hancock's Ancient Apocalypse"
"way ahead of the curve on computers"
12/3/2022 02:21:34 pm
If Hancock's work was solid he would not have been consistently debunked every time he cranks out another book. You can search this very blog and find multiple examples of major holes being poked in pretty much every claim he has made.
12/20/2022 12:15:46 am
Spot on. I spent a few years sifting through his books in order to find the flaws in his argument. I have been studying history for over 30 years and was keen to find a flaw in his argument. Turns out he was pretty much spot on and the constant attempt to cancel him really shows how modern archeologists operate. I find the Maltese argument against his theory to be most flawed. Just because they haven’t found any evidence doesn’t mean it’s not their. Do a quick search for an ice age map of Europe and you realise Malta was basically a large hill considering it was connected to Italy and 140 meters above sea level. Take into consideration modern human remains have been found in Italy dating back over 40000 years ago it’s absurd to say they didn’t at least visit the area to hunt. Also looking at Gobekle tepe and karahan tepes age as well as other sites dating into the ice age you could have had massive complexes in the now under water land mass that joined Italy disappear under 140 meters of water. Note the cart ruts leading into the ocean. During the time of Magicians of the gods everyone screamed “show me proof of a cataclysmic event!” Now we have the comet research group. Then it was “we have no evidence of megalithic structures past the Sumerians! He’s spreading mis information!” Then we find the sites in turkey. Good luck with canceling him. The louder you shout the more popular he becomes and the more you validate his opinion of the establishment.
Knee jerk obvious
12/24/2022 11:56:47 am
Please provide the specific source regarding the quote about Sumerians and Hancock being nuts.
Some comments on the section 'Sirius rising" with evidence of their validity.
C R SANT
11/30/2022 06:27:06 am
Small correction to above:
12/16/2022 03:37:32 am
I tried to like Graham. I really did. His first books were interesting, and were filled with excellent photographs. And then...he turns into a paradigm pusher with a conspiratorial bent. He's the seeker of truth, and the "mainstream academics" are for some reason closed- minded people who cannot think outside what they were taught in their college coursework., and have some conspiratorial purpose for not revealing the "real truth".
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